Respiratory

Exploring age-associated differences in T lymphocyte immune responses after BNT162b2 vaccination

In a recent study posted to the bioRxiv* preprint server, researchers compared the immunogenicity of, and reactogenicity to, the BNT162b2 vaccine, a coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) vaccine, in Japanese adults and elders. Study: Delayed antigen-specific CD4+ T-cell induction correlates with impaired immune responses to SARS-COV-2 mRNA vaccination in the elderly. Image …

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Black adults with normal lung function found to have emphysema after race-based adjustments to spirometry

A significant percentage of Black men found to have normal lung function after race-based adjustments to spirometry were actually found to have emphysema on their computed tomography (CT) scans, according to research published at the ATS 2022 international conference. Black adults in the US are more likely to have unrecognized emphysema than white adults. This …

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CDC study of pregnant women hospitalized with COVID in 2021 found 93% not vaccinated

In a recent study posted to the Research Square* preprint server, researchers assessed the characteristics and treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in pregnant women. Various studies have reported that pregnant women are at a higher risk of severe disease outcomes of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections. Despite this, a significant number …

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Simulating molecular dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 spike variants in the locked conformation

In a recent study posted to the bioRxiv* pre-print server, researchers retrieved the first-ever sequenced spike (S) protein structures of the original Wuhan-Hu 1 severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) strain, the Alpha, Delta, Delta-plus variants , and Omicron sub-variants BA.1 and BA.2 and compared their structural and molecular level variations. Study: Molecular dynamics …

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Severe symptoms result in high titers of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies

The ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by the novel coronavirus, namely, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has drastically affected the global healthcare system and economy. SARS-CoV-2 causes asymptomatic to severe infection, which sometimes results in death. Scientists observed that active replication of the virus occurs in the early stage of the …

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Third BNT162b2 dose elicits more durable immune response than second dose

In a recent study posted to the medRxiv* preprint server, researchers evaluated the durability of immune responses post-third dose of the BNT162b2 vaccine. Study: Durability of the immune response to a third BNT162b2 dose; five months follow-up. Image Credit: Telnov Oleksii/Shutterstock The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has negatively affected human lives and remains an …

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The potential impact of oral vaccination against COVID-19 on transmission to naïve individuals studied in a hamster infection model

A recent article published in Science Translational Medicine demonstrated that mucosally delivered adenovirus type 5 (Ad5)-based coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination minimized COVID-19 transmission and severity. Study: Adenovirus type 5 SARS-CoV-2 vaccines delivered orally or intranasally reduced disease severity and transmission in a hamster model. Image Credit: sdecoret/Shutterstock Background The currently approved intramuscular (IM) severe …

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Diagnostic performance of monocyte distribution width and other leukocyte parameters for SARS-CoV-2 and influenza infection

In a recent study posted to the Research Square* preprint server, researchers used a novel diagnostic screen, monocyte distribution width (MDW) for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and influenza infection. Study: Monocyte Distribution Width as a Pragmatic Diagnostic Screen for SARS-CoV-2 and Influenza Infection. Image Credit: Corona Borealis Studio/Shutterstock Background MDW, a measure …

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Effectiveness of BNT162b2 third dose against Omicron-associated severe disease

In a recent study posted to the medRxiv* preprint server, researchers analyzed the effectiveness of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) BNT162b2 third vaccine dose against SARS-CoV-2 Omicron-induced severe infection nearly seven months post-vaccination. Study: Protection against omicron severe disease 0-7 months after BNT162b2 booster. Image Credit: peterschreiber.media/Shutterstock Background Following an increase in …

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Evidence of croup associated with SARS-CoV-2

Croup, inflammation of the subglottic upper airway mucosa manifest as respiratory distress airflow obstruction in children. In addition, it is associated with epithelial-level edema, and most emergency department (ED) admissions occur due to an acute viral infection. Study: Croup Associated With SARS-CoV-2: Pediatric Laryngotracheitis During the Omicron Surge. Image Credit: rumruay/Shutterstock The frequency of the …

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